Skip Navigation

Chapter 2, Lesson 5 Multimedia

Ice Melting on Different Surfaces

This video shows two cubes of ice melting at different rates, depending on the surface on which they are placed. The ice cube which is placed on the black wooden block doesn't melt at all, while the ice cube on the aluminum block melts very quickly.

Get Adobe Flash player

  • Identical ice cubes are placed on black squares of aluminum and plastic foam.
  • Why does one melt faster than the other?

Melting Ice

This animation shows water molecules in an ice lattice breaking down to become liquid water.

Get Adobe Flash player

  • As the ice is heated, the motion of the molecules increases.
  • Eventually, the motion overcomes the attraction between molecules, and the ice melts and becomes a liquid. This video appears courtesy of Roy Tasker.
    © Roy Tasker, VisChem Project.

Ice and Water

Molecules of water in the liquid state. The molecules are close to one another but can move past each other.Molecules of water arranged a fixed crystal structure in ice.
  • After melting, the water molecules are closer together than they were as ice.
  • As a liquid, the molecules are more randomly arranged and the molecules are able to slide past each other.

States of Matter

This diagram shows that as energy is added to matter in the form of heat, solids become liquids, and liquids become gases.  As energy is removed, the process is reversed.  Gases condense to form liqui
  • As energy is added, the motion of the molecules increases and begins to overcome the attractions that molecules have for one another. If enough energy is added, the solid melts to a liquid and the liquid evaporates to a gas.
  • As energy is removed, the motion of the molecules decreases and and the attractions begin to overcome the motion of the molecules. If enough energy is removed, the gas condenses to a liquid and the liquid freezes to a solid.

States of Water

This diagram shows how water responds as energy is added or removed.  When energy is added to ice, it melts and becomes water. However, unlike many substances, the molecules in water are actually clos
  • As energy is added, the motion of the water molecules increases and begins to overcome the attractions they have for one another.If enough energy is added, the ice melts to liquid water and the water evaporates to a water vapor.
  • As energy is removed, the motion of the molecules decreases and and the attractions begin to overcome the motion of the molecules. If enough energy is removed, the water vapor condenses to liquid water and the water freezes to ice.

Water Freezes

This image shows how water molecules arrange themselves in a fixed pattern in ice.
  • When water freezes, the water molecules arrange themselves in a regular hexagonal pattern.
  • The hydrogens of one water molecule are near the oxygens atoms of other water molecules.

Dry Ice

Dry ice and regular ice are placed on a paper towel. While the regular ice melts over time, leaving behind a pool of water, the dry ice passes directly into the gas phase.

Get Adobe Flash player

Regular ice melts and leaves a darker wet mark on the paper towel. Dry ice goes directly from a solid to a gas and leaves no mark on the paper towel.

Dry Ice in Water

This video shows the vapor that dry ice produces when it is placed in water.

Get Adobe Flash player

When dry ice is placed in water, energy is transferred from the water to the dry ice. This energy causes the dry ice to change state from a solid directly to a gas. This gas is noticeable as the bubbles that form in the water.

Dry Ice in Hot and Cold Water

This video shows how dry ice responds to being placed in different temperature water samples. The dry ice in hot water produces gas more vigorously than the dry ice placed in cold water.

Get Adobe Flash player

  • The dry ice placed in hot water evolves carbon dioxide gas at a faster rate than the dry ice placed in cold water.