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Chapter 4, Lesson 4 Multimedia

Covalent Bond in Hydrogen I

This video illustrates the process of covalent bonding between two hydrogen atoms. The electron of one hydrogen atom is attracted to the nucleus of the other. This attraction brings them together until both electrons are shared between the two atoms.

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  • When two hydrogen atoms get close enough, the electron from each atom feels an attraction from the proton in the other atom's nucleus.
  • This attraction pulls the atoms together.
  • The electrons end up being shared by the atoms in a region around the nucleus of both atoms.

Covalent Bond in Hydrogen II

Two hydrogen atomsnear one another.The electron of each hydrogen atom feels an attraction for the proton in the nucleus of the other. The hydrogen atoms form a covalent bond by sharing their electrons.
  • Hydrogen atoms are close together. The electron from each atom feels the attraction from the proton in the nucleus of the other atom.
  • This attraction pulls the atoms together and the electrons are shared by both atoms.
  • The atoms bond because there is a strong enough attraction in both directions and room for the electrons in the outer energy level of the atoms.

Covalent Bonding in Water I

The process of covalent bonding between the atoms that make up water is illustrated. The electrons of the hydrogen atoms are attracted to the protons in the nucelus of the oxygen atom. The atoms share their electrons to form covalent bonds.

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  • When two hydrogen atoms and an oxygen atom get close enough, the electron from each atom feels an attraction from the protons in the other atom's nucleus.
  • This attraction pulls the atoms together.
  • The electrons end up being shared by the atoms in a region around the nucleus of both atoms.

Covalent Bonding in Water II

Two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom near each other.The electron of each hydrogen atom feels an attraction for the proton in the nucleus of the oxygen atom, and vice versa. The hydrogen atoms and oxygen atom form covalent bonds by sharing electrons.
  • Hydrogen atoms and an oxygen atom are close together.
  • Electrons from each atom feel the attraction from the protons in the nucleus of the other atom.
  • This attraction pulls the atoms together and the electrons are shared by both atoms.
  • The atoms bond because there is a strong enough attraction in both directions and room for the electrons in the outer energy level of the atoms.

Electrolysis

An apparatus made from a 9 volt battery taped between two lead pencils is inserted into a cup. With alligator clips running from the terminals of the battery to the graphite, the electricity flows through the pencils into the water and splits the bonds between hydrogen and oxygen, which is noticable as small bubbles forming rapidly near the sharpened end of each pencil in the water.

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  • Electricity breaks the covalent bond between hydrogen and oxygen in the water molecule.
  • Two hydrogen atoms covalently bond to form hydrogen gas.
  • Two oxygen atoms covalently bond to form oxygen gas.
  • There are twice as many hydrogen atoms as oxygen atoms so more hydrogen gas is formed.

Oxygen's Double Bond

This animation shows how two oxygen atoms share two pairs of electrons to form a double bond. In each atom, two of its outermost electrons feel an attraction for the protons of the nucleus of the other oxygen atom. This attraction brings them together until they share their electrons, thus forming covalent bonds.

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  • Oxygen atoms are close together.
  • The electrons from each atom feel the attraction from the protons in the nucleus of the other atom.
  • This attraction pulls the atoms together and the electrons are shared by both atoms.
  • The atoms form a double bond because there is a strong enough attraction in both directions and room for the electrons in the outer energy level of the atoms.

Oxygen's Double Bond

Two oxygen atoms are near each other.Two of the outermost electrons in each oxygen atom begin to feel an attraction for the protons in the nucleus of the other oxygen atom. The oxygen atoms form a double bond.  A double bond is formed when two pairs of electrons are shared between atoms, rather than only one pair, as in a single bond.
  • Oxygen atoms are close together.
  • The electrons from each atom feel the attraction from the protons in the nucleus of the other atom.
  • This attraction pulls the atoms together and the electrons are shared by both atoms.
  • The atoms form a double bond because there is a strong enough attraction in both directions and room for the electrons in the outer energy level of the atoms.

Covalent Bonding in Methane

Four hydrogen atoms and one carbon atom are near each other. The hydrogen atoms are arranged around the oxygen atom.A molecule of methane, in which four hydrogen atoms are covalently bonded to the central carbon atom.
  • The carbon atom and hydrogen atoms are close together.
  • The electrons from each atom feels the attraction from the proton in the nucleus of the other atom.
  • This attraction pulls the atoms together and the electrons are shared by both atoms.
  • The atoms bond because there is a strong enough attraction in both directions and room for the electrons in the outer energy level of the atoms.

Covalent Bonding Carbon Dioxide

Two oxygen atoms are on either side of a central carbon atom.A carbon dioxide molecule, in which a central carbon atom is double bonded to two oxygen atoms.
  • A carbon atom and two oxygen atoms are close together.
  • The electrons from each atom feel the attraction from the protons in the nucleus of the other atom.
  • This attraction pulls the atoms together and the electrons are shared by both atoms.
  • The atoms form a double bond because there is a strong enough attraction in both directions and room for the electrons in the outer energy level of the atoms.