Chapter 4, Lesson 6 Multimedia
Lewis Dot Diagrams
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- A Lewis dot structure is like a simplified electron energy level model.
- The Lewis structure contains the element symbol with dots representing electrons.
- The only electrons shown are those on the outer energy level or valence electrons.
- The electrons are placed around the element symbol, one at a time, clockwise or counterclockwise, and then grouped in pairs as more electrons are added.
Covalent Bonding in Hydrogen
- Lewis dot structures can also be used to show the bonded atoms in a molecule.
- The two dots together between the Hydrogens represent the electrons in the covalent bond between the hydrogen atoms.
- The line is a short-hand version of the two dots.
Covalent Bonding in Water
- The Lewis dot structure for water shows the electron from hydrogen and an electron from oxygen being shared in a covalent bond.
- The other four valence electrons in oxygen are in pairs at the bottom.
- The lines are a short-hand version of the two dots representing the covalent bonds.
Covalent Bonding in Oxygen
- The two pairs of dots between the Os represent the double covalent bond in the oxygen molecule.
- The two lines are a short-hand version of the two pairs of dots.
Covalent Bonding in Carbon Dioxide
- The two pairs of dots between the C and the Os represent the double covalent bond between the carbon and each oxygen atom in the carbon dioxide molecule.
- The two sets of two lines are a short-hand version to show the two double covalent bonds.
Ionic Bonding of Sodium Chloride
- When sodium loses its only valence electron to become an ion, the Lewis structure shows it with no dots (electrons).
- The Na and Cl are near each other but the two dots from the Cl should not be interpreted as a covalent bond.
Ionic Bonding in Calcium Chloride
- When calcium loses its two valence electrons to become an ion, the Lewis structure shows it with no dots (electrons).
- The Ca and Cls are near each other but the two dots from each Cl should not be interpreted as a covalent bond.
- Lesson 1: Water is a Polar Molecule
- Lesson 2: Surface Tension
- Lesson 3: Why Does Water Dissolve Salt?
- Lesson 4: Why Does Water Dissolve Sugar?
- Lesson 5: Using Dissolving to Identify an Unknown
- Lesson 6: Does Temperature Affect Dissolving?
- Lesson 7: Can Liquids Dissolve in Water?
- Lesson 8: Can Gases Dissolve in Water?
- Lesson 9: Temperature Changes Dissolving
- Lesson 1: What is a Chemical Reaction?
- Lesson 2: Controlling the Amount of Products in a Chemical Reaction
- Lesson 3: Forming a Precipitate
- Lesson 4: Temperature and the Rate of a Chemical Reaction
- Lesson 5: A Catalyst and the Rate of Reaction
- Lesson 7: Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions
- Lesson 8: pH and Color Change
- Lesson 9: Neutralizing Acids and Bases
- Lesson 10: Carbon Dioxide Can Make a Solution Acidic